Goldak heat input for Welding and AM process



Goldak heat input

There are various types of heat input models with different accuracies. The accuracy of the heat input model is important in predicting the nodal temperature and heat distribution. Here, we explain the Goldak heat input as it is widely used for additive manufacturing and welding processes. It is especially used for Wire arc additive manufacturing which uses welding as a heat source. Before explaining the Goldak heat input model let’s learn more about wire arc additive manufacturing and welding.

Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing:

Additive Layer Manufacturing has become an important industrial process for the manufacture of custom-made metal work pieces. Innovative Wire and Arc Additive Layer Manufacture (WAALM) solutions have emerged recently to fabricate highly reactive metallic components in an out-of-chamber environment. Faster processing speeds and high deposition rate capabilities are central attributes to enable the production of large-scale aerospace components. Although the wire-added ALM process has been around for almost a century, modern welding and automation technologies provide opportunities that were not previously available. In addition, there is currently a demand for sustainable, low-cost, environmentally friendly processes with high geometric flexibility.


Many metallic structures in the industry are assembled through some kind of welding process which is composed of heating, melting and solidification using a heat source such as arc, laser, torch or electron beam. The highly localized transient heat and strongly nonlinear temperature fields in both heating and cooling processes cause non-uniform thermal expansion and contraction, resulting in plastic deformation in the weld and surrounding areas. As a result, residual stress, strain and distortion are permanently produced in the welded structures.

High tensile residual stress is known to promote fracture and fatigue, while compressive residual stress may induce undesired, and often unpredictable, global or local buckling during or after the welding. It is particularly evident in large and thin panels used in the construction of automobile bodies and ships. These adversely effect the fabrication, assembly, and service life of the structures. Therefore, prediction and control of residual stress and distortion from the welding process is extremely important in the shipbuilding and automotive industry

Tutorial video:

Here, you will learn how to create a simple welding model using Goldak heat input. Goldak model is the most common heat input model to simulate additive manufacturing and welding process. Our previous video about additive manufacturing  is a prerequisite for this one and you can download it from here (Click here). In fact, this is the next version of the mentioned video as it uses all parameters as the previous one but the heat source is different. The video is short so you can learn it in less than 10 minutes. You will have the output and Abaqus CAE file.

If you would like to learn more about developing additive manufacturing and welding models in Abaqus, you can use the following to download the files:

A Model to Simulate Welding Process (or additive manufacturing)

 In this video, we avoid giving too many details so you can easily use the product. Here you can find the following files:

Abaqus files: CAE, ODB, INP, and JNL

Video files: How to create this model.

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From J.Ding’s paper:

Thermo-mechanical analysis of Wire and Arc Additive Layer Manufacturing process on large multi-layer parts

Here is the Youtube Video:



Easy learning

1 review for Goldak heat input for Welding and AM process

  1. HyperLyceum Team (verified owner)

    It is difficult to find the moving Goldak heat source on the internet and here it is affordable

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